Agro Times
Recent News |  Archives |  Tags |  Newsletter |  Message Board/Forum |  About |  Links |  Subscribe to AgroTimes.com RSS Feed Subscribe


More Articles
Enhanced instrument enables high-speed chemical imaging of tissuesEnhanced instrument enables high-speed chemical imaging of tissues

Lunar pits could shelter astronauts, reveal details of how 'man in the moon' formedLunar pits could shelter astronauts, reveal details of how 'man in the moon' formed

Study led by indigenous people uncovers grizzly bear 'highway'Study led by indigenous people uncovers grizzly bear 'highway'

Tiny laser sensor heightens bomb detection sensitivityTiny laser sensor heightens bomb detection sensitivity

A crystal wedding in the nanocosmosA crystal wedding in the nanocosmos

Has Antarctic sea ice expansion been overestimated?Has Antarctic sea ice expansion been overestimated?

Boosting the force of empty spaceBoosting the force of empty space

New research: When it hurts to think we were made for each otherNew research: When it hurts to think we were made for each other

Bacteria swim with whole body, not just propellersBacteria swim with whole body, not just propellers

Mixed genes mix up the migrations of hybrid birdsMixed genes mix up the migrations of hybrid birds

The economic territory of Upper Palaeolithic groups is specified by flintThe economic territory of Upper Palaeolithic groups is specified by flint

Wisconsin scientists find genetic recipe to turn stem cells to bloodWisconsin scientists find genetic recipe to turn stem cells to blood

Law of physics governs airplane evolutionLaw of physics governs airplane evolution

PIWI proteins and piRNAs regulate genes in the germline and beyondPIWI proteins and piRNAs regulate genes in the germline and beyond

Brain waves show learning to read does not end in 4th grade, contrary to popular theory

Running for life: How speed restricts evolutionary change of the vertebral columnRunning for life: How speed restricts evolutionary change of the vertebral column

Getting a grip on robotic graspGetting a grip on robotic grasp

The bend in the Appalachian mountain chain is finally explainedThe bend in the Appalachian mountain chain is finally explained

Cooperation among humans, a question of ageCooperation among humans, a question of age

Protein's 'hands' enable bacteria to establish infection, research findsProtein's 'hands' enable bacteria to establish infection, research finds

Less exercise, not more calories, responsible for expanding waistlinesLess exercise, not more calories, responsible for expanding waistlines

High earners in a stock market game have brain patterns that can predict market bubblesHigh earners in a stock market game have brain patterns that can predict market bubbles

Platonic solids generate their 4-dimensional analoguesPlatonic solids generate their 4-dimensional analogues

A healthy lifestyle adds years to lifeA healthy lifestyle adds years to life

Study of animal urination could lead to better-engineered productsStudy of animal urination could lead to better-engineered products

Do probiotics help kids with stomach bugs?Do probiotics help kids with stomach bugs?

Strict diet suspends development, doubles lifespan of wormsStrict diet suspends development, doubles lifespan of worms

Identified for the first time what kind of explosive has been used after the detonationIdentified for the first time what kind of explosive has been used after the detonation

Copied from nature: Detecting software errors via genetic algorithmsCopied from nature: Detecting software errors via genetic algorithms

Entomologists update definitions to tackle resistance to biotech crops and pesticides (3/20/2014)

Tags:
corn, corn rootworm, cotton, crops, fungi, insects, lead, mites, organic, pesticides, plants, produce, rootworm, soil, toxins

Resistance to pesticides has now been recorded in nearly a thousand pest species, including more than 500 insects, 218 weeds, and 190 fungi that attack plants. The recorded cases of resistance in insects, mites and other arthropods, which include resistance to multiple pesticides per species, more than doubled from 5,141 in 1990 to 11,254 in 2013. A first step in tackling this growing global problem is establishing a common vocabulary, because the current jumble of terms fosters confusion among scientists in academia, industry and government. To address this issue, five entomologists from the University of Arizona and Michigan State University updated definitions for 50 key terms related to resistance in a new article in the Journal of Economic Entomology (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC13458).

"The lack of a modern glossary for resistance was recently brought to our attention by an initiative of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) seeking input on definitions of terms about resistance," said Dr. Mark Whalon, one of the co-authors from Michigan State University, who directs the online Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database and who also serves as the Entomological Society of America's Liaison to the EPA Office of Pesticide Programs. "We provide a list of 50 key resistance terms and definitions aimed at facilitating understanding and management of resistance."

The authors favor definitions that promote proactive detection and management of resistance, such as resistance defined as "a genetically based decrease in susceptibility to a pesticide." They contrast this with an alternative definition used by some industry scientists that requires "repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control," which generally occurs only after it's too late to respond most effectively.

The stakes are especially high for defining and managing insect resistance to corn and cotton plants genetically engineered to produce proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). These proteins kill some key pests, but are not toxic to people, wildlife, or even most insects. Organic growers have used Bt toxins in sprays for decades, and conventional farmers have widely adopted transgenic Bt crops since 1996. In 2013, Bt corn and Bt cotton were planted on 187 million acres worldwide and accounted for 75% of all cotton and 76% of all corn grown in the U.S.

Recognizing that resistance is not "all or none" and that intermediate levels of resistance can have a continuum of effects on pest control, the authors describe five categories of field-evolved resistance and use them to classify 13 cases of resistance to five Bt toxins in transgenic corn and cotton based on monitoring data from five continents for nine major pest species.

Emerging resistance of the western corn rootworm to Bt corn exemplifies the urgent need for well-defined resistance terms. The cost of this insidious beetle to U.S. corn growers has been estimated at one billion dollars annually. In 2003, to reduce costs and cut back on soil insecticides, U.S. farmers began planting Bt corn that kills rootworms.

"The first evidence of rootworm resistance to Bt corn was discovered in Iowa in 2009," said Dr. Bruce Tabashnik, the study's lead author and head of the entomology department at the University of Arizona. "Nearly five years later, the resistance has spread but decisive regulatory action by the EPA is still stalled, in part because an effective definition of resistance is lacking in this case."

Although some scientists have expressed concern that reports of pest resistance to Bt crops provide 'ammunition' to anti-biotech activists, Tabashnik said "Pests are remarkably adaptable. They usually evolve resistance to any tactic that's used repeatedly to control them, so this problem is not limited to transgenic crops." Noting that insects have been evolving resistance to natural plant defenses for millions of years and that this year marks the 100th anniversary of the first reported case of insecticide resistance, he concludes, "Finding ways to delay resistance is a never-ending challenge with any pest management approach."

Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by the Entomological Society of America

Post Comments:

Search
New Articles
Scientists complete chromosome-based draft of the wheat genomeScientists complete chromosome-based draft of the wheat genome

Scientists track gene activity when honey bees do and don't eat honeyScientists track gene activity when honey bees do and don't eat honey

Choosing cheese

Flower development in 3D: Timing is the keyFlower development in 3D: Timing is the key

Major study documents nutritional and food safety benefits of organic farmingMajor study documents nutritional and food safety benefits of organic farming

Experts voice concerns over arsenic in rice

Gene discovery could lead to better soybean varieties for Northern United StatesGene discovery could lead to better soybean varieties for Northern United States

A natural way to monitor, and possibly control populations of, stink bugs

'Tailored' water -- the latest in lawn care'Tailored' water -- the latest in lawn care

Novel gene for salt tolerance found in wild soybean

Great tasting low-fat cheeses and cakes could soon be on the menu

New recreational travel model to help states stop firewood assisted insect travel

Hunting gives deer-damaged forests in state parks a shot at recoveryHunting gives deer-damaged forests in state parks a shot at recovery

Controlling contamination in open algae ponds for biofuelsControlling contamination in open algae ponds for biofuels

Bee foraging chronically impaired by pesticide exposure: StudyBee foraging chronically impaired by pesticide exposure: Study



Archives
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009


Science Friends
Astronomy News
Sports Tech
Biology News
Biomimicry Science
Cognitive Research
Chemistry News
Tissue Engineering
Cancer Research
Cybernetics Research
Electonics Research
Fossil News
Forensics Report
Genetic Archaeology
Genetics News
Geology News
Microbiology Research
Nanotech News
Physics News
Parenting News


  Archives |  Submit News |  Advertise With Us |  Contact Us |  Links
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. All contents © 2000 - 2015 Web Doodle, LLC. All rights reserved.